What Is Website Analysis

Before planning SEO for any website, how to analyze any website to get quick and positive results in less time.
Thank for the help!
I am not any kind of 'webmaster' but I know most page providers will sell services to do such. Also Google has webmaster tools you can sign up for through a Google account if you want to go down that road...

From what I have learned; the best way to attract Search Engine Optimization is to add content to your "Alternative Text" on you site's pictures-apparently that is the new fad in SEO. 'Meta-Tags' in your HTML can still be useful but I guess they are becoming 'old school'.