Mosaic Law: 20 Questions

Here are a few more new questions I'd appreciate some insight on. Thanks everyone! Your opinions are of great help to me in my studies. :)
(Ps. If any questions were repeated, I didn't get a clear answer from before or might like to hear more. Thanks!)

OLD QUESTIONS - NEED CLARIFICATION

#1: Explain situating of Naphtali's placement in reference to Deuteronomy 33:23 ("SOUTHward?")

#2: Lots of questions about Levites...
A. Why was Levi distinguished for this honor (priesthood) despite he and Simeon's sin in Genesis 34? Were they cursed for it? Simeon seems to fade into obscurity...
B. Did Levites who worked in the temple(s), etc. live in a different place than the ones who led normal working lives?
C. Did both types live in the Levite towns or did they live separately? D. Did the Levites (both or one kind) live with other people in their towns who belonged to the tribe they were situated in or were the towns exclusively for the Levites?
E. How did the redeeming of the firstborn/Levites work? (See Numbers 3.)
F. Someone said that individual Levites only worked for the Lord for a period of time, not in a lifelong position. Was this true/false, or did it differ by position? Reference?

#3: Ruth was a Moabite, who were not allowed to enter the congregation even till the tenth generation. Did this not include proselytes? Deuteronomy 23. People say it doesn't include descendants by foreign women. Reference?

NEW QUESTIONS

#4: Friends! Extremely interested to hear more about Sheol chart posted earlier. References for this? Possible that hell references are different name for the same thing? Doing research.

#5: 1 Samuel 20:6. How could they offer a sacrifice in Bethlehem when they were only to be made at the Temple? I know this is a fabrication by David, but then they probably did happen with some families. But how?

#6: People often made covenant promises as well as oaths by God in the OT. Is this in conflict now with the later command in James 5:12, "Above all, my brothers and sisters, do not swear—not by heaven or by earth or by anything else. All you need to say is a simple “Yes” or “No.” Otherwise you will be condemned."

#7: Did other people around the world live as long as Noah? Why does the 120 year limit start in Genesis but people were still living beyond it later on? (Genesis 6:3) When was the last person to live beyond it?

#8: 1 Samuel 16- an evil spirit from God? Confusion about David's census, too:
(2 Samuel 24:1)"Again the anger of the Lord burned against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, “Go and take a census of Israel and Judah.” (1 Chronicles 21:1) "Satan rose up against Israel and incited David to take a census of Israel."

#9: Why was Israel restored (1940's)? Deuteronomy 30.

#10: Why/how does modern archaeology 'confirm' Jericho was abandoned 300 years before the Hebrews got there?

#11: Why does carbon dating put ancient civilizations before the creation?

#12: The tabernacle seems to be moving around a lot. It's difficult to tell where it is.
-Example: In 1 Samuel 21:1, is it there? Nob isn't listed as a Levitical city. Are there more Levite cities now?
-Also: Could the Levites live in a non-Levitical city? Which type? For example, can non-tabernacle/temple workers, aka non-serving normal everyday Levites live wherever, but priests only served in Levitical cities? If so, why was Ahimelek serving in Nob?

#13: In 1 Samuel 20, why did David need to hide behind the rock for the arrow shenanigan if Jonathan was able to just speak to him directly?

#14: 1 Samuel 21. Three questions...
First, was Ahimelek wrong for giving the consecrated bread to David? Also, at the end of the chapter, there are two things that strike me as odd. First, what was Goliath's sword doing in Nob? I thought David brought those things to his own tent and to Jerusalem. ("David took the Philistine’s head and brought it to Jerusalem; he put the Philistine’s weapons in his own tent." - 1 Samuel 17:54 NIV) Why was it in Nob? Second, why did he flee to Gath?!

Note: "David took the Philistine’s head and brought it to Jerusalem; he put the Philistine’s weapons in his own tent." (1 Samuel 17:54 NIV) Why did he take it to Jerusalem?

#15: 1 Samuel 14:3 & Nehemiah 10:26 both have the same root word for the name Ahijah/Ahiah. Why is the name written differently in English (Ahijah & Ahiah)? Note that NIV and KJV both use both names, but usage is reversed!

#16: Was Saul still based in his hometown in Gibeah surrounding the events of 1 Samuel 18, 19, 20, etc.?

#17: How did the high priesthood end up in the house of Ithamar (1 Samuel 21, 1 Chronicles 24:3) versus Eleazar? Was it a family line (father to son) or an elected office?
-Also, why was the tabernacle moved to Nob (1 Samuel 21)?
-(see below) Also, was there more than one Ahimelek and was Ahitub two different people- the grandson of Eli and the grandson of X-unknown of the house of Eleazar?
-----Aaron. - Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. - Eleazar Phinehas Abishua Bukki Uzzi Zerahiah Meraioth Amariah Ahitub Zadok Ahimaaz Azariah Johanan Azariah Amariah Ahitub Zadok Shallum Hilkiah Azariah Seraiah Jozadak.
-----
1 Samuel 22:20
(Abiathar son of ) Ahimelek son of Ahitub
1 Samuel 23:6
Abiathar son of Ahimelek
1 Samuel 30:7
Abiathar son of Ahimelek
2 Samuel 8:17
Zadok son of Ahitub and Ahimelek son of Abiathar were priests
(http://mobile.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksearch=Ahitub&qs_version=NIV)
-----
-Weren't they both (sons' families) serving different offices at the same time by family responsibilities in the tabernacle, as Aaron's sons were separated by duty in the wilderness? Which, though, was high priest and how was it decided? How did it pass on? There were also high priests for each Levite town, or at least one for each city of refuge. Perhaps Nob was one of these? But if so, why did he have the ephod with Urim and Thummim? Which Levitical city did the highest high priest (ex. Eleazar in the wilderness, or did this highest high priest thing end in the wilderness after the division of the Levites among the Levitical cities?) live in?

#18: What's the difference between burnt and guilt/sin offerings (which I understand are two different things- but where does the burnt offering fit in... is it just a general term because the sacrifices were literally burnt)?
(I got some answers that were very satisfactory concerning sin/guilt differences. I'm still wondering about the burnt question.)
 
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#4: Friends! Extremely interested to hear more about Sheol chart posted earlier. References for this? Possible that hell references are different name for the same thing? Doing research.

In the Gorgias, Plato (c. 400 BC) wrote that souls were judged after death and those who received punishment were sent to Tartarus. As a place of punishment, it can be considered a hell. The classic Hades, on the other hand, is more similar to Old Testament sheol.
In Hesiod's Theogony, c. 700 BC, the deity Tartarus was the third force to manifest in the yawning void of Chaos.
In The Iliad (c. 700), Zeus asserts that Tartarus is "as far beneath Hades as heaven is high above the earth." As a place so far from the sun and so deep in the earth, Tartarus is hemmed in by three layers of night, which surround a bronze wall which in turn encompasses Tartarus. It is a dank and wretched pit engulfed in murky gloom. It is one of the primordial objects which sprung from Chaos, the Abyss. Along with Tartarus, Gaia (Earth), and Eros, emerged into the universe.
While, according to Greek mythology, Hades is the place of the dead, Tartarus also has a number of inhabitants. When Cronus, the ruling Titan, came to power he imprisoned the Cyclopes in Tartarus. Some myths also say he imprisoned the three Hecatonchires (giants with fifty heads and one hundred arms). Zeus released them to aid in his conflict with the Titan giants. The gods of Olympus eventually defeated the Titans. Many, but not all of the Titans, were cast into Tartarus. Cronus, Epimetheus, Metis, Menoetius, and Prometheus are some Titans who were not banished to Tartarus. In Tartarus, prisoners were guarded by the Hecatonchires. Later, when Zeus overcame the monster Typhon, the offspring of Tartarus and Gaia, he threw the monster into the same pit.
Originally, Tartarus was used only to confine dangers to the gods of Olympus. In later mythologies, Tartarus became the place where the punishment fits the crime. For example Sisyphus, who was punished for telling the father of Aegina, a young woman kidnapped by Zeus for one of his sexual gratifications, where she was and who had initially taken her. Zeus considered this an ultimate betrayal and saw to it that Sisyphus was forced to roll a large boulder up a mountainside, but when he reached the crest, it rolled back down, again and again.
Also found there was Ixion, one of the mortals invited to dine with the gods. Ixion began to lust after Zeus' wife, Hera, and began to caress her under the table, but soon ceased at Zeus' warning. Later that night, having given Ixion a place to sleep, Zeus felt the need to test the guests's tolerance and willpower. Constructing a cloud-woman to mirror Hera in appearance, Zeus sent her, known as Nephele, to Ixion's bed. He promptly slept with and impregnanted the false Hera. As his punishment, he was banished to Tartarus to forever roll strapped to a wheel of flames, which represented his burning lust.
Tantalus who was also graciously invited to dine with the gods, felt he should repay them for their kindness and hospitality, but in his pride, decided to see if he could deceive the gods. Tantalus murdered and roasted his son Pelops as a feast for the gods. Demeter, one of the goddesses who preferred to walk with the mortals, graciously accepted the food, but was immediately repulsed when she bit into the left shoulder. The gods all became violently ill and immediately left for Mt. Olympus. As his punishment for such a heinous act, Tantalus was chained to a rock in the middle of a river in Tartarus with a berry bush hanging just out of reach above his head. Cursed with unquenchable thirst and unending hunger, Tantalus constantly tried to reach the water or food, but each time, the water and berries would recede out of his reach for eternity.
According to Plato (c. 400), Rhadamanthus, Aeacus and Minos were the judges of the dead and chose who went to Tartarus. Rhadamanthus judged Asian souls; Aeacus judged European souls and Minos was the deciding vote and judge of the Greek.
Plato also proposes the concept that sinners were cast under the ground to be punished in accordance with their sins the Myth of Er.
In Roman mythology, Tartarus is the place where sinners are sent. Virgil describes it in the Aeneid as a gigantic place, surrounded by the flaming river Phlegethon and triple walls to prevent sinners from escaping from it. It is guarded by a hydra with fifty black gaping jaws, which sits at a screeching gate protected by columns of solid adamantine, a substance akin to diamond - so hard that nothing will cut through it. Inside, there is a castle with wide walls, and a tall iron turret. Tisiphone, one of the Erinyes who represents revenge, stands guard sleepless at the top of this turret lashing a whip. There is a pit inside which is said to extend down into the earth twice as far as the distance from the lands of the living to Olympus. At the bottom of this pit lie the Titans, the twin sons of Aloeus and many other sinners. Still more sinners are contained inside Tartarus, with punishments similar to those of Greek myth.
The term "Tartarus" is found only once in the Bible, at 2 Peter 2:4: "God did not hold back from punishing the angels that sinned, but, by throwing them into Tartarus, delivered them into pits of dense darkness to be reserved for judgement."
In most Bibles, the word is simply translated as "Hell," even though early Christian writers usually used the term Gehenna, the fiery pit, to mean hell. In addition, this dark place matches the term's traditional meaning, a dark pit in which the supreme god has cast his divine enemies.
The term "Hades" appears in the religious texts of New Testament times as a translation of the Old Testament Sheol.
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Gehenna (or gehenom or gehinom) is the Jewish hell or purgatory. It has sometimes been described as a final punishment for the wicked and sometimes as a spiritual forge in which souls are purified after death. In English, Jews commonly use the term "hell" in place of "gehenna." The name derived from the burning garbage dump near Jerusalem (the Hinnom gulch), metaphorically identified with the entrance to the underworld of punishment in the afterlife.
Gehenna also appears in the New Testament and in early Christian writing to represent the place where evil will be destroyed. It lends its name to Islam's hell, Jahannam.
In both Jewish and Christian writing, Gehenna as a destination of the wicked, is different from Tartarus (deepest sheol) and from hades (sheol) the abode of all the dead. In some accounts, the fiery punishment of Gehenna takes place in one level or section of hades
The word is derived from the Greek, ultimately from Hebrew: ??(?)-?????? Gêhinnôm (also Gai ben-Hinnom (Hebrew: ??? ?? ??????) meaning the Valley of Hinnom's son. The valley forms the southern border of ancient Jerusalem and stretches from the foot of Mt. Zion, eastward, to the Kidron Valley. It is first mentioned in Joshua 15:8. as a deep, narrow ravine at the foot of the walls of Jerusalem where refuse was burned. It is here that the bodies of executed criminals or others deemed unworthy of a proper burial were dumped. The association with hell derives from the tradition that the Canaanites sacrificed children to their god Moloch in this place.
19:5. And they built the high places of Baal to burn their children with fire as burnt offerings to Baal, which I did not command, neither did I speak nor did it enter My mind. 19:6. Therefore, behold days are coming, says the Lord, when this place will no longer be called Topheth or Ben-Hinnom Valley, but the Valley of Slaughter."

Pagans once sacrificed their children to pagan idols in the fires in Gehenna, and this was an abomination; in 2 Kings, 23:10, King Josiah forbade the sacrificing of children to Moloch at Gehenna (though Baal is not mentioned in this particular verse). Rashi claims that the Tophet (????) was the Molech. Since priests would bang on drums (?????) so that the father would not hear the groans of the child when he would be burned by the hands of the pagan image, Molech, they called it Topheth.
There are stories of fires that were kept burning via the adding of brimstone (sulfur). Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible Volume I, explains,
“It became the common lay-stall garbage dump of the city, where the dead bodies of criminals, and the carcasses of animals, and every other kind of filth was cast.”
The dump was full of rotting garbage which sent up a stench that could be smelled for miles.

The Rabbinic tradition arose from the Pharisaic tradition after the destruction of the Second Temple in AD 70. In general, it moved away from traditional Judaism's emphasis on an earthly future for Israel toward the concept of reward in the life to come. Gehinom (Gehenna), according to rabbinic literature, is a place or state where the wicked are temporarily punished after death.

In the synoptic gospels Jesus uses the word Gehenna to refer to the place where sinners are punished after death. It is a place where both soul and body will be destroyed (Matthew 10:28), a place of "unquenchable fire" (Mark 9:43).
In the Gospel of Matthew 23:33, Jesus observes,"Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of gehenna?”
The word gehenna is also found in the epistle of James, where it is said to set the tongue on fire.
Most Christians understand gehenna (hell) to be a place of eternal punishment. On the other hand, annihilationists, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, understand gehenna to be a place where sinners are utterly destroyed (like garbage in a burning dump), not tormented forever.
The word gehenna (Gehennem, Jahannam) also occurs in the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an, as a place of torment for sinners or Islamic equivalent to hell.
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Tophet (Hebrew:????) is a location near Jerusalem where according to the Bible, the Canaanites sacrificed children to the god Moloch by burning them alive. It is thought to be a specific geographic location within the valley of Gehenna.
The name is possibly derived from the Hebrew toph = drum, because drums were used to drown the cries of children; or from the Hebrew taph or toph = to burn.
The practice of child sacrifice was outlawed by King Josiah. The valley became a refuse site where animal carcasses, waste and the bodies of criminals were dumped, with fires permanently burning to keep disease at bay.
Tophet became a synonym for hell. Tophet as the name of the Gehenna site was transferred to the child cemetery in Carthage; the assumption that child sacrifice was also practiced in Carthage is not unanimously accepted by modern scholars and the debate is continuing.
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In Hebrew, Sheol (Sh'ol) is the "abode of the dead", the "underworld", "the common grave of humankind" or "pit". In the Hebrew Bible, it is a place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go at the point of death. Sheol is the common destination of both the righteous and the unrighteous dead, as recounted in Ecclesiastes and Job.
Sheol is sometimes compared to Hades, the gloomy, twilight afterlife of Greek mythology. The word "hades" was in fact substituted for "sheol" when the Hebrew scriptures were translated into Greek (see Septuagint). The New Testament (written in Greek) also uses "hades" to refer to the abode of the dead.
By the second century BC, Jews had come to believe that those in sheol awaited the resurrection either in comfort (in the bosom of Abraham) or in torment.
Protestants, who do not share a concept of "hades" with the Eastern Orthodox, have traditionally translated "sheol" (and "hades") as "hell" (for example in the King James Version). However, to avoid confusion of what are actually quite separate concepts in the Bible, modern English versions of the Bible tend either to transliterate the word sheol or to use an alternative term such as the "grave" (eg. NIV). Roman Catholics generally translate "sheol" simply as "death."
In the Tanakh, which is the Hebrew Bible (which Christians call the Old Testament), the word "sheol" occurs more than sixty times. It is used most frequently in the Psalms, wisdom literature and prophetic books.
In the book of Numbers, Korah along with 250 of his followers go down, living, into sheol when the earth opens up beneath them (Numbers 16:31-33), suggesting that sheol is literally under the ground.
Jacob, not comforted at the reported death of Joseph, exclaims: "I shall go down to my son a mourner unto Sheol" (Genesis 37:35). Sheol may be personified: Sheol is never satiated (Proverbs 30:20); she "makes wide her throat" (Isaiah 5:14).
The Book of Enoch (ca. 160 BCE) purportedly records Enoch's vision of the cosmos. The author describes Sheol as divided into four sections: one where the faithful saints blissfully await Judgment Day (see Bosom of Abraham), one where the moderately good await their reward, one where the wicked are punished and await their Judgment at the resurrection (see Gehenna), and the last where the wicked who don't even warrant resurrection are tormented.
The Hebrew word nephesh, traditionally translated "living soul"
Shayol Ghul is a giant black mountain in which lies the Pit Of Doom ; an otherworldly place where the Dark One is closest to touching the world
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as you can see here .. the Jews believe in a place of torment as in purifying the soul .. however this belief is NOT in the OT anywhere, but rather "far-reaching" interpretations .. the reason they don't believe in "Hell" is because it is first mentioned by Jesus whom by his death for our sins CHANGED the format .. this is exemplified in him descending to "Sheol" between his death and resurection to preach "the plan of salvation" to those who had died prior that ALL may hear and have the same choice to believe or not
Fundamentals of the Jewish Faith
Chapter Five: Heaven and Hell (Part 2)
Hell is termed “Gehenom” in Hebrew and is sometimes known as “The Netherworld”. It’s the unholy realm in which we bear the consequences of our bad ethical choices. But something needs to be emphasized here; for as Ramchal puts it, Gehenom is the place where “the soul is punished”, not the body. That’s to say, the sort of recompense and punishment we’re speaking of here is an immaterial kind. Hence the idea that Hell is a black and fiery place of eternal torment for the damned, as it’s usually taken to be, is absurd by our reckoning.
After all, if it was our bodies that experienced Gehenom, then we could conceivably be said to suffer the kind of hell-fire and brimstone that’s associated with Hell. But that’s not the case.
So some offered that the punishments depicted were metaphorical; they said that they stood for a sort of mental and emotional anguish of the soul. But while elevating the suffering to a non-material level of abstract anguish certainly separates it from the body, that’s still only one step beyond an out-and-out a material understanding of it.
Yet the tradition is clear about the existence of Gehenom, and it certainly insists upon the reality of recompense for wrongdoing just as much as it’s resolute about reward for goodness (which is why Ramchal equated the two when he said that “just as there are different degrees of punishment” in Gehenom, “there are likewise different degrees delight” in Gan Eden). So what is Gehenom all about after all?
It comes to this: the otherworldly suffering undergone in Gehenom is of a wholly spiritual kind that’s set-off by what’s termed elsewhere a "subtle, ethereal fire” (see Ramban’s Sha’ar HaGemul) that’s totally out of our experience, just as out of our experience, by the way, as the immaterial mechanism that allows for the sort of otherworldly delight enjoyed in Gan Eden.
In any event, the Gehenom experience enables wrongdoers to be “expiated from their sins” and to then be “purified” enough to “be worthy of rewarded” In Gan Eden afterwards. For, we’re taught that Gehenom is far from eternal. It usually only has to be endured for up to a year and no longer, after which the soul ascends to Gan Eden to join the others there. Some very few, very despicable individuals never make it to Gan Eden, though, and they’re said to be completely “undone”. But again, this is rare and only happens to a “miniscule minority” of individuals, as Ramchal puts it.
So let’s sum up what Ramchal has said about the Jewish views of the fate of human souls after death, judgment, the Afterlife, and The End of Days. We learn that the soul is either ensconced in Gan Eden (which Ramchal terms “The Soul World”) or Gehenom after death as the body returns to its elements, or it’s reincarnated; body and soul are then brought back to life after the Messianic Era; and the combination of the two is then allowed access to The World to Come.

http://www.torah.org/learning/ramchal/classes/fundamental5-2.html
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HADES
(occurs 10 times in 10 verses)

Mat 11:23 "And you, Capernaum, will not be exalted to heaven, will you? You will descend to Hades; for if the miracles had occurred in Sodom which occurred in you, it would have remained to this day.
Mat 16:18 "I also say to you that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of Hades will not overpower it.
Luk 10:15 "And you, Capernaum, will not be exalted to heaven, will you? You will be brought down to Hades!
Luk 16:23 "In Hades he lifted up his eyes, being in torment, and saw Abraham far away and Lazarus in his bosom.
Act 2:27 BECAUSE YOU WILL NOT ABANDON MY SOUL TO HADES, NOR ALLOW YOUR HOLY ONE TO UNDERGO DECAY.
Act 2:31 he looked ahead and spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that HE WAS NEITHER ABANDONED TO HADES, NOR DID His flesh SUFFER DECAY.
Rev 1:18 and the living One; and I was dead, and behold, I am alive forevermore, and I have the keys of death and of Hades.
Rev 6:8 I looked, and behold, an ashen horse; and he who sat on it had the name Death; and Hades was following with him. Authority was given to them over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by the wild beasts of the earth.
Rev 20:13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead which were in them; and they were judged, every one of them according to their deeds.
Rev 20:14 Then death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire.

SHEOL
(occurs 67 times in 65 verses)
Psa 30:3 O LORD, You have brought up my soul from Sheol; You have kept me alive, that I would not go down to the pit.
Psa 55:15 Let death come deceitfully upon them; Let them go down alive to Sheol, For evil is in their dwelling, in their midst.
Psa 139:8 If I ascend to heaven, You are there; If I make my bed in Sheol, behold, You are there.
Pro 15:24 The path of life leads upward for the wise That he may keep away from Sheol below.
Isa 7:11 "Ask a sign for yourself from the LORD your God; make it deep as Sheol or high as heaven."
Isa 14:9 "Sheol from beneath is excited over you to meet you when you come; It arouses for you the spirits of the dead, all the leaders of the earth; It raises all the kings of the nations from their thrones.
Isa 38:18 "For Sheol cannot thank You, Death cannot praise You; Those who go down to the pit cannot hope for Your faithfulness.
Hsa 13:14 Shall I ransom them from the power of Sheol? Shall I redeem them from death? O Death, where are your thorns? O Sheol, where is your sting? Compassion will be hidden from My sight.
Jon 2:2 and he said, "I called out of my distress to the LORD, And He answered me. I cried for help from the depth of Sheol; You heard my voice.

Gehenna/HELL
(occurs 13 times in 13 verses)
Mat 5:22 "But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother shall be guilty before the court; and whoever says to his brother, 'You good-for-nothing,' shall be guilty before the supreme court; and whoever says, 'You fool,' shall be guilty enough to go into the fiery hell.
Mat 5:29 "If your right eye makes you stumble, tear it out and throw it from you; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body, than for your whole body to be thrown into hell.
Mat 5:30 "If your right hand makes you stumble, cut it off and throw it from you; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body, than for your whole body to go into hell.
Mat 10:28 "Do not fear those who kill the body but are unable to kill the soul; but rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.
Mat 18:9 "If your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it from you. It is better for you to enter life with one eye, than to have two eyes and be cast into the fiery hell.
Mat 23:15 "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you travel around on sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he becomes one, you make him twice as much a son of hell as yourselves.
Mat 23:33 "You serpents, you brood of vipers, how will you escape the sentence of hell?
Mar 9:43 "If your hand causes you to stumble, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life crippled, than, having your two hands, to go into hell, into the unquenchable fire,
Mar 9:45 "If your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off; it is better for you to enter life lame, than, having your two feet, to be cast into hell,
Mar 9:47 "If your eye causes you to stumble, throw it out; it is better for you to enter the kingdom of God with one eye, than, having two eyes, to be cast into hell,
Luk 12:5 "But I will warn you whom to fear: fear the One who, after He has killed, has authority to cast into hell; yes, I tell you, fear Him!
Jam 3:6 And the tongue is a fire, the very world of iniquity; the tongue is set among our members as that which defiles the entire body, and sets on fire the course of our life, and is set on fire by hell.

Tartarus
(should be abyss - proper name)
2Pe 2:4 For if God did not spare angels when they sinned, but cast them into hell and committed them to pits of darkness, reserved for judgment;

Rev 20:3 and he threw him into the abyss, and shut it and sealed it over him, so that he would not deceive the nations any longer, until the thousand years were completed; after these things he must be released for a short time.
 
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NEW QUESTIONS

#5: 1 Samuel 20:6. How could they offer a sacrifice in Bethlehem when they were only to be made at the Temple? I know this is a fabrication by David, but then they probably did happen with some families. But how?

the Temple would not be built for another 50 years or so ..
because after the Hebrews entered Israel, conquered it and divided it up, they had judges .. once the Kingdom if Israel split up (10 northern and 2 southern) the Tent of Meeting and Ark, were in possession of the northern kingdom who Jeroboam I was king ..
1Sa 14:18 Then Saul said to Ahijah, “Bring the ark of God here.” For the ark of God was at that time with the sons of Israel.
note: the northern kingdom was called Israel ..
and the southern kingdom was called Judah ..


#6: People often made covenant promises as well as oaths by God in the OT. Is this in conflict now with the later command in James 5:12, "Above all, my brothers and sisters, do not swear—not by heaven or by earth or by anything else. All you need to say is a simple “Yes” or “No.” Otherwise you will be condemned."

actually, sun, moon, earth and tree worship were still popular beliefs in Gentile lands when James wrote it, and is what James 5:12 is referring to .. judgement as to idolatry ..
Deu 17:3 and has gone and served other gods and worshiped them, or the sun or the moon or any of the heavenly host, which I have not commanded,

#7: Did other people around the world live as long as Noah? Why does the 120 year limit start in Genesis but people were still living beyond it later on? (Genesis 6:3) When was the last person to live beyond it?

from Adam to Noah, people lived long lives (900+) ..
the flood was the changing point ..
from Shem to Eber, people still lived long lives (550+) ..
from Peleg to Isaac, people still lived long lives (200+) ..
Perez (son of Judah) was the first to die naturally at age 120 ..


#8: 1 Samuel 16- an evil spirit from God?

an evil spirit ALLOWED BY God ..
the same as God allowed satan to terrorize Job ..
or God allowed deceiving spirits in the mouths of his prophets ..


Confusion about David's census, too:
(2 Samuel 24:1)"Again the anger of the Lord burned against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, “Go and take a census of Israel and Judah.” (1 Chronicles 21:1) "Satan rose up against Israel and incited David to take a census of Israel."

BAD TRANSLATION ..
God was mad at Israel, so David was going to avenge God's anger on the people ..
it was David's idea to do this, not God's ..

2Sa 24:1 Now again the anger of the LORD burned against Israel, and it incited David against them to say, “Go, number Israel and Judah.”
2Sa 24:3 But Joab said to the king, “Now may the LORD your God add to the people a hundred times as many as they are, while the eyes of my lord the king
still see; but why does my lord the king delight in this thing?”
2Sa 24:10 Now David’s heart troubled him after he had numbered the people. So David said to the LORD, “I have sinned greatly in what I have done. But now, O LORD, please take away the iniquity of Your servant, for I have acted very foolishly.”

David realized it was not his place to take out God's wrath .. and repented ..
(it seems David was going to kill all over a fixed number to satisfy God's anger at Israel)
God was mad at David and said fine, I will kill them if you want them dead (2Sa 24:12-18)
so David knew he sinned, pleaded mercy for them (
2Sa 24:17) ..

#9: Why was Israel restored (1940's)? Deuteronomy 30.

because God promised He would ..
Amo 9:15 “I will also plant them on their land, And they will not again be rooted out from their land Which I have given them,” Says the LORD your God.

#10: Why/how does modern archaeology 'confirm' Jericho was abandoned 300 years before the Hebrews got there?

it doesn't .. it confirms it's destruction in 1400 bce ..
my biblical math (counting backwards) had the date as about 1406 bce when they crossed the Jordan ..
The story in the Bible goes on to say that when the walls collapsed, the Israelites stormed the city and set it on fire. Archaeologists found evidence for a massive destruction by fire just as the Bible relates.

Kenyon wrote in her excavation report,
“The destruction was complete. Walls and floors were blackened or reddened by fire, and every room was filled with fallen bricks, timbers, and household utensils; in most rooms the fallen debris was heavily burnt.”

What caused the strong walls of Jericho to collapse? The most likely explanation is an earthquake. But the nature of the earthquake was unusual. It struck in such a way as to allow a portion of the city wall on the north side of the site to remain standing, while everywhere else the wall fell.
Rahab's house was evidently located on the north side of the city.


Italian archaeologists conducted a limited excavation on the ancient tell of Jericho. Lorenzo Nigro and Nicolo Marchetti, working under the auspices of the new Palestinian Department of Archaeology, excavated for one month on the fringes of Kathleen Kenyon's west and south trenches. Their dig was the first foreign expedition in the Palestinian-controlled areas of the West Bank since self-rule began in 1994.
After their excavation, Nigro and Marchetti announced they found no evidence for a destruction from the time of Joshua. While it is too soon for the academic community to see details of their discoveries, their announcement suggests their excavation was conducted to disprove the Biblical account of Joshua's capture of the city. Is it further possible that the Palestinian Authority supported this dig for the express purpose of denouncing any Jewish connection to the site?

Dr. Bryant Wood, Director of the
Associates for Biblical Research and one of the leading experts on the archaeology of Jericho, recently responded.
“It matters little what the Italian archaeologists did not find in their month-long dig. The evidence is already in. Three major expeditions to the site over the past 90 years uncovered abundant evidence to support the Biblical account.”

As Wood went on to point out, John Garstang (1930-1936) and Kathleen Kenyon (1952-1958) both dug at Jericho for six seasons and a German excavation directed by Ernst Sellin and Carl Watzinger dug for three. All found abundant evidence of the city's destruction by fire in a layer related to the Biblical date of 1400 BC.


In September 1997, Dr. Wood visited Jericho and examined the results of the Italian excavation first hand. Incredibly, he found the Italians had uncovered the stone outer revetment wall at the base of the tell with part of the mudbrick wall built on top of it still intact. In the balk of the Italian excavation, at the outer base of the revetment wall, Wood noticed the remains of the collapsed mudbrick city walls which had tumbled. Not only did the Italians find the same evidence uncovered in the earlier excavations, it fits the Biblical story perfectly!

Wood reports:
“The Italian excavation actually uncovered most of the critical evidence relating to the Biblical story. But even more exciting is the fact that all the evidence from the earlier digs has disappeared over time. We only have records, drawing and photos. But the Italians uncovered a completely new section of the wall which we did not know still existed. I had my photograph taken standing next to the wall where the mudbrick collapse had just been excavated!”


Unfortunately, the Italian archaeologists, the Palestinian Authorities, the Associated Press and most of the world doesn't realize any of this. It is a sad commentary on the state of archaeology in the Holy Land, when the purpose of an excavation at a Biblical site is to disprove the Bible and disassociate the site with any historical Jewish connection.

#11: Why does carbon dating put ancient civilizations before the creation?

they don't .. and if you found a shard prior that had such a date, then most likely it is contaminated or leaching occurred .. they are extremely dishonest in dating and more then one lab should be conferred ..
Carbon dating (created by a Christian) can accurately COUNT .. however what it's counting is not always accurate .. no human remains ever found, out date the creation timeline .. alleged "apemen" (which are apes not men) are dated by rocks (which recent formation of rocks of 50 yrs ago, yield myo dates .. if they ever C14 dated them, they would not tells us what it says .. lol


#12: The tabernacle seems to be moving around a lot. It's difficult to tell where it is.
-Example: In 1 Samuel 21:1, is it there? Nob isn't listed as a Levitical city. Are there more Levite cities now?

yes ..
Mat 12:3 But He said to them, “Have you not read what David did when he became hungry, he and his companions,
Mat 12:4 how he entered the house of God, and they ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for him to eat nor for those with him, but for the priests alone?


-Also: Could the Levites live in a non-Levitical city? Which type? For example, can non-tabernacle/temple workers, aka non-serving normal everyday Levites live wherever, but priests only served in Levitical cities? If so, why was Ahimelek serving in Nob?

the tribe of Levi did not get a parcel of Israel for their own lands (Joshua 18:7) .. they lived "where-ever" .. as I pointed out earlier, the Tent of Meeting was in the northern kingdom of Israel, not the southern kingdom of Judah ..

#13: In 1 Samuel 20, why did David need to hide behind the rock for the arrow shenanigan if Jonathan was able to just speak to him directly?

because Saul had spies .. Jonathan did not even trust the little boy he took with him not to snitch out David ..

#14: 1 Samuel 21. Three questions...
First, was Ahimelek wrong for giving the consecrated bread to David?

no ..
Mat 12:5 “Or have you not read in the Law, that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple break the Sabbath and are innocent?

Also, at the end of the chapter, there are two things that strike me as odd. First, what was Goliath's sword doing in Nob? I thought David brought those things to his own tent and to Jerusalem. ("David took the Philistine’s head and brought it to Jerusalem; he put the Philistine’s weapons in his own tent." - 1 Samuel 17:54 NIV) Why was it in Nob? Second, why did he flee to Gath?!

I don't know .. people can move stuff it they want .. lol
David fled to Gath (in Gaza) because Saul could not get to him in the lands of the Philistines .. but David ended up destroying Achish (king of Gath) ..


Note: "David took the Philistine’s head and brought it to Jerusalem; he put the Philistine’s weapons in his own tent." (1 Samuel 17:54 NIV) Why did he take it to Jerusalem?

probably to put it on the city Gate as a warning .. that was a custom done all the way up until recently done by the King of England to William Wallace ..

#15: 1 Samuel 14:3 & Nehemiah 10:26 both have the same root word for the name Ahijah/Ahiah. Why is the name written differently in English (Ahijah & Ahiah)? Note that NIV and KJV both use both names, but usage is reversed!

they are one in the same name, and can be rendered either way ..
the 1Sa 14:3 usage is phonetic usage .. my guess is they decided to use the two spellings to distinguish they are two different people almost 600 yrs apart ..

אֲחִיָּה 'Achiyah 1Sa 14:3
transliterated in English as Ahijah
אֲחִיָּה 'Achiyah Neh 10:26
transliterated in English as Ahiah
 
Here are some to consider…

#5: 1 Samuel 20:6. How could they offer a sacrifice in Bethlehem when they were only to be made at the Temple? I know this is a fabrication by David, but then they probably did happen with some families. But how?

Where do you get the idea that they are only supposed to be made in the Temple? All the scriptures about sacrifices in Leviticus refer to the Tabernacle and even this passage you refer to speaks of a time when the Temple had not yet been built! There has always been personal sacrifices (see Abel, Noah, Abraham, etc.,) and the Passover sacrifice (in each Household) but the corporate sacrifices were always done at the Tabernacle. In David’s time as King he had the Tabernacle in Jerusalem

#6: People often made covenant promises as well as oaths by God in the OT. Is this in conflict now with the later command in James 5:12, "Above all, my brothers and sisters, do not swear—not by heaven or by earth or by anything else. All you need to say is a simple “Yes” or “No.” Otherwise you will be condemned."

Not really. This is because of the different natures of the two covenants (the Old and the New). The Mosaic Covenant was an IF/Then covenant and therefore an oath or commitment was required. IF you do this THEN I will do this, but IF you do that, THEN I will do that (see all of Deuteronomy 28 for one example)…in the New, Christ has made the commitment, done all perfectly, and though He was blameless was put to death. In the Old God said do this and do not so that…in the New He who promised also did it…He insists on the agreement in this covenant so if they failed they were without excuse

#7: Did other people around the world live as long as Noah? Why does the 120 year limit start in Genesis but people were still living beyond it later on? (
Genesis 6:3) When was the last person to live beyond it?

Well though IMO the 120 years does not refer to individual life spans but the time mankind would still be on the earth before the flood came to wipe them all out (God was giving them time to repent, but they would not), the last remaining person mentioned that lived Lonnnggg, as far as I can discern was Shem the son of Noah but where the Bible is silent I find it is best to be silent (conjecture is fun but we cannot be dogmatic on such points). Psalm 90 tells us the life of a man to be three score and ten, so that would be about 70 years old.

#8: 1 Samuel 16- an evil spirit from God?

God uses the propensity already present (that He knows they will not repent of) and amplifies or directs it for His glory or purpose...for example, Pharaoh's heart was already hardened against Israel God merely used this propensity when it says He hardened Pharaoh's heart (it was not like Pharaoh sympathized and wanted the best for Israel and God did this against his will).
Another is Nebi...Nebi had already wanted to destroy Jerusalem and take them captive but they could not because His hand was protecting them...but when the divorce came He used Nebi's hatred as His own sword...likewise here...if you read this in context you will see these were already lying prophets...by sending the lying spirit He merely enhances what they already were (not like if they were faithful God fearing prophets who He made lie against their will)

Confusion about David's census, too:
(
2 Samuel 24:1)"Again the anger of the Lord burned against Israel, and he incited David against them, saying, “Go and take a census of Israel and Judah.” (1 Chronicles 21:1) "Satan rose up against Israel and incited David to take a census of Israel."

Apparently we had this dilemma in another alleged contradiction…this difference (2 sam to 1 Chron) is only present after the Masoretic Text (not made until 900 A.D.) which is adopted by a lot of Western Translators, but the LXX (1200 years before the Masoretes) says



24:1 And the Lord caused his anger to burn forth again in Israel, and Satan stirred up David against them, saying, Go, number Israel and Juda.

So 1200 years before the Masoretes, the Jewish understanding was that they agreed. But the Aramaic Peshitta agrees with the Hebrew Masoretes in 2nd Sam but doe not have 1 Chronicles at all (at least not my version from http://www.peshitta.org)

#9: Why was Israel restored (1940's)? Deuteronomy 30.

Israel was restored many times…we may never know WHY God gives this 1948 restoration. It may well be just another anti-type awaiting the perfect fulfillment when Messiah rules there. People have differing opinions...we will see...but interestingly the prophecies of the restored tongue, the bringing of Jews from the uttermost North (Russia) and Ethiopia (the Falasha), the increased rainfall, the 6 day war, etc., all do apply to this Israel so who knows...we will see

#10: Why/how does modern archaeology 'confirm' Jericho was abandoned 300 years before the Hebrews got there?

It doesn’t. Those who do, do so because they followed the assertions made by Dame Kathleen Kenyon who (maybe because of Cecil B. DeMill) believed Ramses was the Pharaoh in the time of Moses and the Exodus (which would place Moses and thus Joshua in the land 200 years too late), but this was an error as Ramses was not the Pharaoh…the Exodus took place 480 years before Solomon built the Temple in his 4th year as King (970 – 966 B.C.) and that places the Exodus and thus Joshua in the land around 1450 – 1400 B.C. and NOT 1200 B.C. and thus in the land when Jericho was destroyed. All the other cities destroyed by fire (as was Jericho) were all dated to be from the correct time (around 1400 B.C.) but because of the Pharonic error, the dating is seen as 200 years too early (in other words it is an assumption based conclusion, the dating is correct the placement of the man is not). The more complete explanation takes much more…I will send you some info…

#11: Why does carbon dating put ancient civilizations before the creation?


Again this would take a small book…Carbon dating was found to be in error (more and more) the farther back you go and this for many reasons)…see this article in a very reliable journal, Science (Vol. 141, 1963, pg. 636), which revealed that by the C-14 dating alone, “tissues from living mollusks“ were demonstrated to be “dead for over 3,000 years“, while on the other hand, one Egyptian mummy historically known to be about 2000 year old, could not yield a date older than 250 years. Hello-o! Living mollusks dead for over three thousand years? Can this really be relied upon? Hmmm!

Likewise testing similar to those performed at Mt. St. Helen’s were done on lava samples from Hawaii clearly showing that 200 year old lava formations tested out to be approximately 3,000,000 years old! That’s millions folks, not thousands! The truth is 200 years is a far cry from even 1,000 let alone 1 million. But 3,000,000? I think not. What about you?

This is why C-14 is now combined with Argon dating and other methods and then a “line of best guess” is determined by average or median assumptions (as a Clinical Trial Assistant we use this “line” all the time in drawing generally plausible conclusions). Like Nutcracker Man (really a southern ape) was tested by both methods and come with probabilities ranging from 3,000 years old to 1,000,000,000. After many tests the line of best guess was 175,000 years old but the truth is he could have been closer to the 3,000 or in the millions.

Secondly, the most ancient “civilizations” we have found are no more than 5,000 years old and the hardest line Young Earth Creationists (who accept Genesis 1 days are all 24 hour days) date the earth to be 6,000 years (so not older than creation)…but “yom” translated “day” can mean a year, a lifetime, 1,000 years or even an undefined epoch of time.

#12: The tabernacle seems to be moving around a lot. It's difficult to tell where it is.
-Example: In
1 Samuel 21:1, is it there? Nob isn't listed as a Levitical city. Are there more Levite cities now?

There were many Priestly cities/towns that were/are not mentioned on the Bible. The Bible does NOT list the names of every single city and town in Israel. We never hear of Nazareth till Jesus but it was there. The Bible does not say 2+2=4 but it is truly so.

Nob was a priestly city in the area of Benjamin. After Shiloh (the place not the future person) the Tabernacle moved wherever the Glory (called the Shekinah) of YHVH moved…when the Glory moved they moved the Tabernacle, then after that IMO it moved according to the High Priest, and the priests changed according to the courses (like when Zacharias, the Baptist’s father, was serving it was the course of Abijah),,,each course served two courses a year and all gathered for the three major priestly Feast days (Deuteronomy 16:16 says“Three times in a year all your males shall appear before the Lord your God in the place which He chooses, at the Feast of Unleavened Bread and at the Feast of Weeks and at the Feast of Booths, and they shall not appear before the Lord empty-handed.”) At this time in 1 Samuel Abiathar (Ahimelech’s son) is High Priest and Ahimelech was ministering the Table of Shewbread…

Could the Levites live in a non-Levitical city? Which type? For example, can non-tabernacle/temple workers, aka non-serving normal everyday Levites live wherever, but priests only served in Levitical cities? If so, why was Ahimelek serving in Nob?

As for your first half there is no Biblical answer (ask God when you see Him) but I suppose they could. As for the second half, in my opinion Ahimelech’s son (Abiathar) was the High Priest at the time (in agreement with Jesus) and so his family (in his course) was serving at the tabernacle...Ahimelelch was ministering at the Table of Shewbread (thus not the High Priest)

#13: In
1 Samuel 20; why did David need to hide behind the rock for the arrow shenanigan if Jonathan was able to just speak to him directly?

Jonathan was able to speak to David directly on the previous day, so one has NOTHING to do with the other. Jonathan and David agreed to this plan so Jonathan could safely communicate to David his father’s attitude toward him.


#14:
1 Samuel 21. Three questions...

First, was Ahimelek wrong for giving the consecrated bread to David?

No!

Also, at the end of the chapter, there are two things that strike me as odd. First, what was Goliath's sword doing in Nob? I thought David brought those things to his own tent and to Jerusalem. ("David took the Philistine’s head and brought it to Jerusalem; he put the Philistine’s weapons in his own tent." - 1 Samuel 17:54 NIV) Why was it in Nob? Second, why did he flee to Gath?!

Where was David? He was in/near to Nob…so why wouldn’t he have his prized possessions with him…

#15:
1 Samuel 14:3 & Nehemiah 10:26 both have the same root word for the name Ahijah/Ahiah. Why is the name written differently in English (Ahijah & Ahiah)? Note that NIV and KJV both use both names, but usage is reversed!

The NIV is a mess and IMO not a good translation at all….if you want a more detailed explanation ask me off forum….but in this case the Y or J is implied in the pronunciation anyway so either is correct (one more toward the Hebrew) but the Hebrew is Achiyah (pronounced yah not jah)

#17: How did the high priesthood end up in the house of Ithamar (
1 Samuel 21; 1 Chronicles 24:3) versus Eleazar? Was it a family line (father to son) or an elected office?

As indicated earlier…it is because of the course (24 courses per year, each family served twice for a week at a time, and all gathered for the three major priestly feasts)


-Also, why was the tabernacle moved to Nob (
1 Samuel 21)?

Already explained….


 
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Wow! amazing that some would spend so much time to find these "contradictions"? What drives those who spend so much time, trying to defeat what they do not believe? I am often amazed at those who reject Christ... it seems in the conflict of their spirit and conscience they spend great effort trying to defeat a God they do not believe is real. Or do they?
 
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Wow! amazing that some would spend so much time to find these "contradictions"? What drives those who spend so much time, trying to defeat what they do not believe? I am often amazed at those who reject Christ... it seems in the conflict of their spirit and conscience they spend great effort trying to defeat a God they do not believe is real. Or do they?
Funny, I thought someone wanted folks to do their homework for them. But I loved the response posts!
 
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I really liked ioxye_8 posts as well. I love to learn (psst - what does ioxye stand for?)
 
I AM S
Funny, I thought someone wanted folks to do their homework for them. But I loved the response posts!
I AM STUNNED!! No, my brothers! I believe WHOLEHEARTEDLY! I am asking about these things because I an the one who does not understand! Obviously God has not made mistakes, I need to understand better! I am not flawless so I hit snags. They are all straightened out in time as I continue to learn. And I spend a few hours per day in study with the Word, so that is how I've come across them.
 
Wow! amazing that some would spend so much time to find these "contradictions"? What drives those who spend so much time, trying to defeat what they do not believe? I am often amazed at those who reject Christ... it seems in the conflict of their spirit and conscience they spend great effort trying to defeat a God they do not believe is real. Or do they?
I AM S
Funny, I thought someone wanted folks to do their homework for them. But I loved the response posts!
I AM STUNNED!! No, my brothers! I believe WHOLEHEARTEDLY! I am asking about these things because I an the one who does not understand! Obviously God has not made mistakes, I need to understand better! I am not flawless so I hit snags. They are all straightened out in time as I continue to learn. And I spend a few hours per day in study with the Word, so that is how I've come across them.
 
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I AM S


I AM STUNNED!! No, my brothers! I believe WHOLEHEARTEDLY! I am asking about these things because I an the one who does not understand! Obviously God has not made mistakes, I need to understand better! I am not flawless so I hit snags. They are all straightened out in time as I continue to learn. And I spend a few hours per day in study with the Word, so that is how I've come across them.
Sorry - I did not mean offense. When I initially read your post, I said what I originally thought in response to Mitspa. I did not think in terms of "contradictions." I was delighted with the response from Brother Paul and Ioxye and was meaning I appreciated your original post more. Without it, the responses meant nothing.
 
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But even then couldn't they only offer a sacrifice at the place where the tabernacle was?
The personal sacrifices (like Abel's Noah's Abrahams...one lamb per man) and the passover sacrifices (one lamb per household) could be offered pretty much anywhere. All the sacrifices of the Levitical order (instructed by God) had to be at the appropriate place and in the Tabernacle or Temple...
 
#12: The tabernacle seems to be moving around a lot. It's difficult to tell where it is.
-Example: In 1 Samuel 21:1, is it there? Nob isn't listed as a Levitical city. Are there more Levite cities now?

yes ..
Mat 12:3 But He said to them, “Have you not read what David did when he became hungry, he and his companions,
Mat 12:4 how he entered the house of God, and they ate the consecrated bread, which was not lawful for him to eat nor for those with him, but for the priests alone?

How does this relate ? 0-o i think you meant the other question. Good answer for that, but what about this one?
 
Secondly, the most ancient “civilizations” we have found are no more than 5,000 years old and the hardest line Young Earth Creationists (who accept Genesis 1 days are all 24 hour days) date the earth to be 6,000 years (so not older than creation)…but “yom” translated “day” can mean a year, a lifetime, 1,000 years or even an undefined epoch of time.

Muy interesante! I agree it's indeterminable as of now.
 
Also, at the end of the chapter, there are two things that strike me as odd. First, what was Goliath's sword doing in Nob? I thought David brought those things to his own tent and to Jerusalem. ("David took the Philistine’s head and brought it to Jerusalem; he put the Philistine’s weapons in his own tent." - 1 Samuel 17:54 NIV) Why was it in Nob? Second, why did he flee to Gath?!

I don't know .. people can move stuff it they want .. lol

Haha! Yes i guess so. :D